All posts by loragumarova

Meaning of intercultural education

Intercultural education is a new area in education which needs to address the diversity in society. The diversity is the result of globalization and migration. Main countries, especially European countries, are dealing with diversity issues now by providing intercultural education policy. Many experts suggest that intercultural education has to be implemented at all levels of education starting from pre-school to higher education (Clay & George, 2000). If intercultural education is provided at all levels, students then will acquire intercultural competence such as cultural tolerance, accepting diversity and respecting cultural differences.  It is important to present of role intercultural education for harmonized society.  Therefore, I want to discuss the meaning of intercultural education

Intercultural education encompasses several meanings.  They seem similar with inclusive education meaning such as “peace education”, “equal education” “empowering marginalized students” and “reality education” ( Clay & George, 2000). Reality education includes practical application of political ideology on the matter of presence other ethnic, cultural and religious group in a particular country. The purpose of intercultural education that they reveal, ensures to control power relationship in education and social changes by promoting education for emphasy, moral consiouness.  It means that they think intercultural education is pivotal to sustain social cohesion, the development of mutual understanding and creating intercultural dialogue in the dynamic multicultural society.

Intercultural education also has pertinent value for Kazakhstani context. This is because 130 ethnic groups with different religious, culture and languages are living in Kazakhstan.  Promoting intercultural education will contribute to educate culturally tolerant, open and ready to accept diversity.  Then it will lead to lessen cultural and ethnic conflicts and to stop segregating minority groups.

In conclusion, intercultural education is important to promote because it focus on developing cultural tolerance, accepting diversity and living in a harmony.

Reference:

Clay, J. & George, R. (2000). Intercultural education: a code o practice for twenty first century. European Journal of Teacher Education, 23(2). Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/233248086_Intercultural_Education_A_Code_of_Practice_for_the_twenty-first_century

Advertisements

Singular Pluralities in multilingual society

Globalization requires no more isolation of languages in a society because through other languages people can merit much suitable knowledge for further development. Acknowledgement of diversity in a society and in education is a sign of responsibility for educators and is a sign of success for a diverse society In the context of the world practice, education becomes dynamic since that global practice diversity cannot be viewed as an obstacle or a problem (Martyniuk, 2011, p. 7). Nazarbayev (2007) suggested staged implementation of the cultural project titled ‘Trilingual unity’. Similarly   creation of Assembly of Peoples of Kazakhstan organization opened equal conditions for learning and teaching other languages except the state one. Other languages are presented as a resource and right meticulously acknowledging minorities as a part of the organization or education (Ruiz, 1984, as cited in Reccento, 2006). On the basis of the non- governmental organization there were opened  Sunday schools at every region of Kazakhstan  symbolizing  respect towards ‘the singular purities in multilingual society’. (Garcia & Sylvan, 2011, pp.390-39).); According to Wellner (2000, as cited in Lingren, 2005)  gender, race, age, ethnicity, national origins, or sexual orientation can be conceptualized as diversity.  Education institutions play important driving role in uniting nations within a country. If he or she with diverse ideas in education or at work   treats  growing diversity as a precious asset and as a valuable resource, then minority community members can be protected from being marginalized culturally, linguistically. and ethnically (Martyniuk, 2011, p. 3). Overall, integration and accumulation of other languages and cultures inside a singular person will promote unity and harmony in multiethnic society.

References:

Garcia,O., and Sylvan, C.E. (2011). Pedagogies and practices in multilingual classrooms: Singularities in Pluralities. The Modern Language Journal,95,  385-400. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-4781.2011.01208.x0026-7902/11/

Lindgren, J. (2005). Conceptualizing diversity in empirical terms. Yale Law and Policy Review,23,1, 5-13. Retrieved from Jstor.org

Martyniuk,W. (2011). In support of plurilingual people living in multilingual societies:Policies and frameworks of European language Education. Cahiers de l’’ ILOB,2,1-17. Retrieved from April 5, 2016, https://moodle.nu.edu.kz/pluginfile.php/198652/mod_resource/content/1/In%20support%20of%20plurilingual%20people.pdf

Nazarbayev, N. (2007) “The Message of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N. Nazarbayev to the people of Kazakhstan” New Kazakhstan in the new world, Astana

Recento,T. (Ed). (2006). An Introduction to Language Policy: Theory and Method. USA:Blachwell Publishng.

 

Coexistence of reading and writing

Reading and writing are intertwined important processes. For purposive writing researchers need purposive reading strategy.  I t is very important to follow some reading strategies to gain main ideas for further writings.  For example there are three slightly different open reading types which will be explained more meticulously in the following paragraphs ( Dollahite & Haun, 2006). The most general approach at the opening reading stage is that a reader is recommended to look at a title of a scholarly paper or a book to catch a main idea.  I describe one of the purposeful reading strategies which can be useful for writing process.

In reality I began to understand reading technique when I began to write responding to writings from two classes. I have started to read more purposefully papers without intervention from that time. Without intervention in this context  means that I stopped rereading some passages in the first reading stage as I did at the beginning of the course.  I started intervention or readings with stops at the second stage when I reread again returning back to those interesting or vague points. According to Dollahite and Haun,(2006) there are three characteristics of writing  responses: personal experience approach, application approach and agree/ disagree approach.

I assume, responding to writings has many benefits; a reader will infer the meaning from the text to apply or to explain  personal experiences on the basis of the given article to his own context and at this moment a ready unconsciously understand the main idea of a given text.  I used second approach when I applied language ideology theory into Kazakhstani content supporting it examples from media. Application response helps a reader deeper investigate his living environment in order to find an application example for a written theory. The third type of agree/ disagree approach will enhance critical thinking skills because a reader should infer referring to past research or past experiences. Overall, reading and writing are  overlapping procedure which lead to  understand the main idea of a text assisting writing significantly for a junior researcher.

 

Reference:

Dollahite N.E. & Haun, J. (2006).  Sourcework: Academic Writing From Sources.  US: Heinle, Cengage Learning.

 

 

Argument is a subskill of critical thinking

The subskill of critical thinking argument is used in two ways. These ways are accurately illustrated by Cottrell with  different activities (2005,p.38).  Argument  is not similar to disagreement. A person cannot approve of someone’s position without clearly indicating why he does not agree or persuade his reader or listener to think differently. There is a difference between a position, an agreement, a disagreement, and an argument in critical thinking. All these terms defined by Cottrell in this way:

  • ‘Position can be defined as a point of view.
  • Agreement can refer to concurrence with someone’s opinion.
  • Disagreement can be defined as a different point of view from someone else.
  • Argument can be used to refer to a point of view which has reasons to persuade or to support known or unknown audiences. It may also comprise disagreement if it is based on reasons’ (Cottrell, 2005, p.52). Contributing argument can be defined as reasons of an individual person. The overall argument introduces author’s position and can be used to refer to a set of reasons, or contributing arguments which are organized to support it. Thus, an argument as a part of critical thinking comprises:
  • ‘A position or point of view;
  • An attempt to persuade others to accept that point of view;
  • Reasons given to support the point of view’ (Cottrell, 2005, p.40);

There are some key terms and phases in creating good argument. As a rule, main aim of authors   is to convince a reader or a listener to believe in what they are telling. Nevertheless, in some cases, authors can purposely or unintentionally explain information differently as they strive to compass own political religious or ideological outlook, however, that does not make any argument invalid. Such statement is called a proposition and it may occur true or false. The last component in argument is conclusion where the authors’ main positions are reiterated (Hamp-Lyons & Heasley, 2006). Moreover it is important to keep in mind that whether an argument can be logical or follow closely mathematical construction of the syllogism in academic writing. Syllogism can be defined as a form of reasoning in which two propositions or premises are expressed and a logical conclusion is caused by them (The American Heritage Dictionary, 2000). Hence, it is  also necessary to be familiar with stages and key words for successful argument.

In addition features of argument will depend on explicit and implicit arguments. If a text contains arguments we are to differentiate implicit and explicit ones (Ramage,  Bean  &  Johnson, 2007,  p. 3). If we look at implicit ones the argument may be hidden in the text. Explicit arguments’ nature contraries to implicit  where the argument is presented in a relatively open way. There are six items which will lead a learner to identify a critical argument they are position, reasons/propositions, line of reasoning, conclusion, persuasion and signal word and phrases and  six clues (start of passage, the end of a passage, interpretive summary, signal words, challenges and recommendations and words indicating a deduction) to finding the conclusion (Cottrell, 2005, p.47)

 

References:

Cottrell, S. (2005) Critical Thinking Skills. England: Palgrave Macmillan Ltd.

Hamp-Lyons,  L.,  Heasley,  B.  (2006). Study Writing. 2nd ed. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Ramage, J.D., Bean, J.C., & Johnson, J.  (2007). Writing  Arguments: A Rhetoric with Readings. New York: Pearson.

The American Heritage Dictionary (2000). Retrieved May 10, 2012 from

http://www.thefreedictionary.com

 

 

 

Theoretical approaches for writing in and outside the classroom

There are three main approaches to the practice of writing skills both in and outside the classroom, they are process, product and genre approaches. Many educators identify process approach as the process wheel. As White and Arndt point out that ‘…..writing is  re-writing…re-vision-seeing with new eyes- has a central role to play in the act of creating text’ (as cited in Harmer, 2011, p. 326).

The process approach helps  a learner to analyze each stage step by step  in academic writing and also  process itself fosters  learners’ thoughts. Moreover, it can be tended to time consuming approach. It can be presented with communicative-task based method.

Another approach to teaching writing is the so called genre approach. The genre approach can be regarded as social approach because ‘genre analysis attempts to show how  the structure of particular text-types are shaped by the purposes they serve in specific social and cultural context’(Thornbury, 2006, p. 260). Therefore, a text  is analyzed  in functional and  in linguistic aspects where a learner has  to differentiate in  style, language and layout.

The last approach in teaching writing is product (or model text) approach. Its focus on producing a text that reproduces the model (Thornbury, 2006, p. 249), particularly this paper’s basic strategies of teaching  argument   in academic writing will be carried out by product approach. There are four stages which facilitate a learner to be more competent in certain aspects of a particular context. Additionally, a teacher can apply Present, Practice and Produce teaching structure in order to familiarize with contributing arguments and the overall argument or with the rest components of critical argument in writing which help a learner to write a good argument. The second and third stages’ (controlled and guided) purposes are to give a learner guided practice with increasing freedom to assist them practice. As for critical argument learners would probably be given a gap fill text where they would be asked to create the overall argument. The last stage is called free writing – in this stage every learner can produce his own product by imitating the sample text.

Thus, all approaches help a learner to revise or to be introduced with any model texts and facilitate a learner’s motivation in writing.

References:

Harmer, J. (2007).  The Practice of English Language Teaching. 4th ed. Essex, England: Pearson

Thornbury, S. (2006). An A-Z of ELT: A Dictionary of terms and Concepts Used in English  Language teaching. Oxford, UK: Macmillan Education.

Origin of CT and its definition

Recent trends in the educational sphere stress the significance of critical thinking skills necessary for academic success and for life. Learners are encouraged to question the validity of views in texts or judge the views of other people. In addition they are to filter knowledge of all kinds through their reasoning and determine logical flaws instead of accepting them as they are. The purpose of this post is to give a general understanding to term ‘critical thinking” and present a glimpse of historical origin about this convoluted phenomenon.

Nowadays there are numerous definitions of critical thinking in the literature.  The majority of definitions are alike and they stress the importance of questioning, for instance, Paul  defined critical thinking as gaining knowledge of requiring and responding questions of analysis, synthesis and evaluation and ‘the ability to reach sound conclusions based on observations and information’( Paul, 1988, p. 49 ). Also senior consultants of  Hannel educational consulting center in Arizona  emphasized that  critical thinking skills would be described as a dialogue between a teacher and a student in the form of Socratic questioning ( Hannel & Hannel, 1998, p. 47 ). Similarly, American psychologist Kurfiss  defined critical thinking as an investigation whose aim is to explore a situation, phenomenon, while all assumptions are open to questions moreover  all available facts can be persuasively justified (as cited in Angelo ,1995,p.6). Therefore, appropriate set of inquiring questions may foster good critical thinking   environment in the class.

History of critical thinking began from ancient Greek philosopher Socrates (469-399 BC). He discovered significance of searching evidence, closely through questioning. He practiced investigating human beings’ mind and thoughts. Researchers of the 20th century at different domains could realize that basic questions of Socrates would become baseline in critical thinking.  In 1906, William Graham Sumner, an American academic in sociology published his book “Folkways” where he mentioned symbiotic relationship between critical thinking and education. Later in 1933 an American philosopher John Dewey attempted to describe critical thinking from philosophical perspective whereby education was intended as a tool for providing conditions to foster thinking habits ( Dewey, 193). Hence, critical thinking is well – established  vital  skill which can occur   in various fields of science.

 

References:

Angelo, A.T. (1995, February). Classroom  Assessment for Critical Thinking. Teaching of Psychology, 22 (1), 6-7. Retrieved from JSTOR.

Dewey, J. (1933). How we think: A restatement of the relation of reflective thinking to the educative process, Lexington, MA: Heath. Retrieved from Google books.

Hannel, G. I. Hannel, L. ( 1998,  September ). Seven steps to teach crtical thinking.  The Education Digest, 64 (1), 47-51. Retrieved from JSTOR.

Paul R., (1988) Critical thinking in the classroom, Teaching, 18 (8), 49-51. Retrieved from Google Scholar.

 

Lifelong learning: benefits from personal perspective

Like many of you, when I started to apply for this program I came across with many ideas.  I realize that the postgraduate education is a demand of the time. That moment I began analyzing how I will leave my beloved family, habitual live style and job, too. Of course, I wanted to enhance myself  professionally and personally for better life As, Alvin Toffler, American writer and futurist noted that “The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn” (n.d.). Consequently, I joined this community to learn new things and upgrade the past knowledge. So, there will be briefly displayed the benefits of lifelong learning in every human being’s life.

Internal senses of curiosity join people to be lifelong learners, and there are huge examples of famous lifelong learners who could find their worthy callings through it. For example, Abraham Lincoln, before he was elected  as the 16th president of the United States, he was a self-educated lawyer who  constantly read books carefully  until he could completely  understand  the contexts, Though, he had  formal schooling  less than a year (Online College org., n.d.). Second great lifelong learner was George Bernard Show, who intensively educated himself through reading, debating and lecturing throughout his life; as a result he was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1925 (ibid.,n.d.). And the last well-known lifelong learner who inspired us with his continuous tenacity to experiment was Alexander Graham Bell, an inventor of the telephone and the telegraph who was self-taught and he attended some lectures in college in his life (ibid ., n.d.). Also, human brain benefits from lifelong learning process. Because the brain constantly changes when we acquire new things actively or passively; if human-beings acknowledge lifelong learning and use it ‘the brain aging may be reversible’ (Guglielman, 2012). Thus, in both cases we noticed benefits of lifelong learning process and how lifelong learning occurs in all levels of people’s lives.

References:

Guglielman,E. (2012). The Aging Brain: Neuroplasticity and lifelong-learning. Retrieved February 9, 2016, from elearningpapers.eu

Online College.org. (n.d.). 25 Famous Lifelong Learners who inspire us all. Retrieved February 9, 2016, from  Online College org Web site: http://www.onlinecollege.org/2011/06/06/25-famous-lifelong-learners-who-inspire-us-all/

Toffler,A. (n.d.). Briny Quote.com. Retrieved February 9, 2016, from Brainy Quote.com Web site: http://www.brainyquote.com/citation/quotes/quotes/a/alvintoffl409080.html?ct=Alvin+Toffler