All posts by julicurie

About julicurie

SHE is a music lover, a movie fan- esp. Japanese cartoon animation, and a CRAZY reader;))

Heritage language education

Language is defined by its power and status, such as dominant language or minority languages. Dominant language can be the official language in a country and widely used by the residents. We all agree that society is multilingual or multicultural. It means that, monolingual country does not exist. However, the politics of a country can held a monolingual view, and advocate monolingualism. In such countries, teaching and learning of the minority languages are suppressed and downplayed by the language policy makers. These languages face the risk of extinction. Thus, heritage languages are languages of immigrants and indigenous minorities. Minority languages taught as subjects or mediums of instruction is the basic form of heritage language education such as supplementary schools or bi/multilingual programs.

The current situation of heritage language is somehow better than ever before. Some linguistic scholars and educators began to pay close attention to the need of these minorities. In some countries, they set up Sunday Schools which promote the heritage language education. For example, the supplementary or complementary schools were opened for immigrants and minorities in the UK (Horner & Weber, 2012). This type of schools often used the bilingual programs for children to learn their native language, such as “Bengali, Gujarati, Cantonese, Mandarin and Turkish” (Horner & Weber, 2012). They mostly work at the weekend to teach these minority languages.

These minority languages can also be taught at mainstream schools through bilingual/ multilingual programs. Mainly the medium of instruction is the dominant language, and minority languages are taught as subjects. On the other hand, if there is a strong support from that community, minority languages can be the medium of instruction. Taking into account of one of the indigenous language in New Zealand, Maori medium schools were opened to endorse Maori language teaching and learning by bilingual programs.

To conclude, whether heritage language education is shaped by supplementary schools or bi/multilingual programs, it indeed contributes to the language revitalization. For these marginalized minorities, their linguistic rights are supported and implemented in language education which is crucial to revive the languages.

Reference

Horner K. and Weber J.J. (2012). Heritage language education. Introducing Multilingualism a Social Approach. (p. 137.).Routledge.

Horner K. and Weber J.J. (2012). Revitalization of endangered languages. Introducing Multilingualism a Social Approach. (p. 53.).Routledge.

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Blog comments

For me, it’s a great chance to write blogs.  In fact, I used to post on another blog site before, but not so often and even with tiny texts.  At that time, blogging was just a supplement of sharing of my stories and emotions.  I got comments from readers on my short posts from different places with the help of the Internet. The Internet is a vast platform which gathers everyone all over the world and it shortens the distance between bloggers and readers.

Now, as a blogger of NU Writing, I would say that I am a novice writer. Because blogging here is not as simple as what I did before, it requires thoughtful writing with certain word count, as opposed to my previous careless and superficial work. I am undertaking this task for assessment and self-development. Just for the sake of the curiosity, I began to think about comments on the posts.  In my understanding, insightful comment is a meaningful dialogue and a good source of learning.

Valuable comments are good conversations between readers and bloggers. I would not include any fake comment or repellent mockery of others’ work. Indeed, some Internet users post their aggressive comments in their uncivil tongue which discourage the normal communication. In such deteriorated communication, it’s hard to obtain any useful information from the commenters. While negative comments lead to aggression, positive comments are the thoughts of readers and the respect. I appreciate comments from good-mannered readers, they give you pertinent feedbacks on the topic, and they criticize your work rationally. From that point, you would understand which part needs improvement. Good writing and thinking skills can accrue from these effective comments. You both, either commenters or bloggers seem to indulge in a worthy dialogue.

These comments also offer a great opportunity to learn from others. Comments implicate one’s evaluation. Readers share their opinions and feedbacks in relation to your post. They can add information on that topic, and they can also correct if the content does not fit the truth or anything wrong. After that, you look over the comments. These comments enable you to rethink the topic, receive new information and attain to knowledge. Basically, you are learning something new from these precious comments.

To conclude, insightful comments encourage bloggers to learn from commenters and to talk with readers. That’s how I perceive these comments in my writing, and what about you, smart readers?

PS, please comment and share your own thoughts on commenting.

 

 

Language revitalization of minorities

Language is a unique creation from the ancestors; it presents our history, our culture, and our identity.  All living languages constitute the diverse ecology of the languages. However, some languages are threatened due to various reasons. The main reason for endangerment is somehow political. Taking into consideration of prediction of the languages decline, there is an urgent need for revitalizing the languages. These languages are often assumed as the languages of indigenous minorities and immigrant minorities. In order to revive the languages of the minorities, specific language revitalization methods and programs need to be added to the educational agenda.

Different language revitalization methods defined by Tsunoda (2006) have emerged in various settings. For instance, the bilingual method focuses on the instruction of minority language and dominant language which does not mean teaching the language (Tsunoda, 2006). While the bilingual method is related to mediums of instruction in education, other methods illustrate the daily learning in different contexts such as social communication and media use. Other methods can be neighborhood method, telephone method, radio method, multimedia method, and so forth (Tsunoda, 2006). Neighbourhood and telephone method occur in the conversation with the speakers from that particular language community; radio method and multimedia method implicate language learning through listening. All these simple methods are aimed at revitalizing languages through different ways, and some of them are applicable to the education.

Language revitalization programs designated for schools can be either bilingual programs or multilingual programs. These programs are found so as to preserve the minority languages and promote their use in education. Considering the successful language revitalization program of the Maori language in New Zealand, from the 1980s the Maori community set up the Maori-medium pre-schools, and then gradually opened the secondary schools and tertiary institutions. The school program is additive bilingualism, which is aimed at maintaining the Maori language, in Maori and English (Weber & Horner, 2012). Obviously, languages of minority groups can be effectively revitalized through educational programs.

To conclude, language revitalization can be achieved by implementing the specific bilingual/multilingual programs and by means of different methods. Minority languages are opposed to the language of the powerful group which indeed lack some support from the government in some countries. On the other hand, there are international organizations that endeavor to preserve and revitalize the languages.

Reference:

Tsunoda, T. (2006). Language revitalization: maintenance and revival.Language endangerment and language revitalization: an introduction (Vol. 148). Walter de Gruyter.

Weber J.J. & Horner K. (2012). Revitalization of endangered languages. Introducing Multilingualism a Social Approach.(p. 53.).Routledge.

I am a master procrastinator

Urban T.(2016, April 6). Inside the mind of a master procrastinator. [TED talks]. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mMOHfgKxuYI

Procrastination is a pain for me. I always postpone my work and suffer from such a repeated behavior. Procrastination is an obstacle for me. I hardly achieved the goal as I plan and even I surrender myself for such an insane action. After all, I realized that I am a procrastinator and even a master of it.

Yet, I’m not proud of being a master at procrastinating.  A voice inside my body warns me all the time; he tries to persuade me not to run out of time. “Stop procrastination”. To tell the truth, I so much admire non-procrastinators who indeed effectively manage their time. I was inspired to talk about my experience of being a master procrastinator; and I am still, when I watched the video from one of us. Tim Urban, also a master procrastinator, gave a TED talk about the mind of procrastinators publically. It’s conceivable that procrastinators have vast similarities in their experiences. He completed his senior thesis (90 pages) at two nights. And I have done less but 15 pages over 72 hours. Both papers were unqualified.  For others, I would suggest that never try this and risk yourself.

As a master procrastinator, I performed excellently in both short-term and long-term procrastination. While short-term procrastination has an obvious deadline, long-term procrastination extends without deadlines (Urban, 2016). My rush paper is one example of short-term procrastination where my panic monster woke up, and naughty monkey escaped. Urban (2016) in his presentation explains the three different roles in our brains of procrastinators, for example, rational decision-maker, instant gratification monkey and panic monster. All the fault of procrastination can be blamed at this monkey who only seeks for ease and fun. Once panic monster appears, the decision-maker gets the chance to control the whole system. It seems that everything goes right.

Long-term procrastination is endless for all of us. We might put off the plan of travelling for some reasons; we might change schedule which we desire and so on. And we are absolutely aware of no stipulated deadline for us. Thus, we are in the process of procrastination within our monkey. For instance, I hatched some good plans for me such as gym exercise, travelling; however, I did nothing. I am not sure when I can get this work done.

Finally, I said something true about me. I am a master procrastinator.  Being experienced procrastinators, there is a need to think over why we are procrastinating as well as how to stop procrastinating.

 

 

Language loss

Languages loss is not a new phenomenon. Languages faced the challenge of being disappeared historically from the beginning of the human history (Tsunoda, 2006). Krauss (1998) asserts that the languages reached its heyday around 10,000 years ago, and then the number of languages has gradually declined. For me, existing languages are living creatures, and they are struggling in a risky ecological environment. No matter how many of them are alive, they are still in danger of extinction.

The total number of languages is under debate. In accordance with new data from Language Hotspots Project, there are 7,000 languages estimated in the world (Anderson & Harrison, 2006). From the previous research, I have found differences on the total number of languages. 4,500 living and dead languages were listed by researchers (Voegelin and Voegelin, 1977), and Ruhlen (1987) reports that there are 5,000 living languages all over the world. Later on, the figure is increased to 6,000 by Grimese (1988) and changed to 6,500 (as cited in Tsunoda, 2006). Obviously, the number of languages is changing over the time and even slightly increased; you might refute the anticipation of decline of Krauss. To this concern, Krauss (1992) explains that the difference of the number of languages is caused by the definition of “language” and “dialect”.

In fact, the current situation of these languages is not so positive. Languages are in danger of death. Krauss (1998) believes that there will be 300 languages last in the next one and a half centuries. Even it is predicted for the next few decades that one-third of languages are going to be lost(SIL websites, n.d.). Languages seem to suffer from various dangers, linguistic imperialism; invasion of linguistic human rights and so on.

To sum up, this brief information about language loss is aimed to raise the awaerneess of language endangerment.  Of importance, the languages are living creature, and there is still a gleam of hope to save them.

Reference

Anderson, G. D., & Harrison, K. D. (2006). Language hotspots: linking language extinction, biodiversity, & human knowledge base. Retrieved from http://www.livingtongues.org/docs/Hotspots_whitepaper%20copy.pdf

Krauss, M. (1992). The world’s languages in crisis. Language68(1), 4-10. Retreived from http://sustainableunh.unh.edu/sites/sustainableunh.unh.edu/files/images/Krauss(1992).pdf

Krauss,M.(1998). Endangered languages: current issues and future prospects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.361

SIL websites. (n.d.). Endangered languages. Retrieved from:  http://www.sil.org/about/endangered-languages

Tsunoda, T. (2006).Current state of language endangerment. Language endangerment and language revitalization: an introduction (Vol. 148). Walter de Gruyter.

A good sleep and a good day

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Having a great night’s sleep is my greatest wish. Now you might wonder why I am saying that. Recently I am bothered by this unkind and uninvited guest- insomnia who visits me so frequently. I do believe I am one of the millions who suffer such a sleeping disturbance.

Insomnia or the inability of sleeping is not the same as any fatal diseases. Our unfriendly guest is not going to kill someone in a moment; however, it can cause several problems in our daily life and presumably influence our health in long-term time. For example, insufficient sleep definitely leads to potential diseases such as heart attack, hypertension and diabetes.  Besides turning to serious illnesses, it can also deteriorate your memory; influence your emotion and your mental health; impact your academic performance in your study.

Don’t be afraid of insomnia. We still get a chance to overcome this problem. First, good sleeping environment is a core condition for our whole night. Your bed should only serve as a sleeping area, do not put your mobiles on your bed. This is because the mobiles can distract your sleeping, stop using the mobiles or even not glance on your cute mobile screen. Second, before going to bed, you need to be meticulous on what you done. That is, do not drink coffee or tea, do not exercise within two hours of bedtime, and do not have any alcoholic nightcap. Third, you need to fix your mind. People who are struggling with their sleep might be worrywarts. If you worry or over-think one thing deeply on your bed, then you are troubled by Mr. Insomnia. Anxiety cannot solve your problem; it elevates your sleeping problem instead. Before sleeping, or even in your day time, you need to have a good mood and try not to depress yourself.

The last thing that I would say: do not let Mr. Insomnia appear in your invitation list, and even do not give a chance to knock your dream door.