Kazakhstan ranks the second in the world in terms of mortality rates from juvenile suicides according to a study conducted by the UNICEF UN Children’s Fund, (Ivashenko, 2016). It is not just a fact, but sad news that puts a black spot on the reputation of the country in general. Year by year the number of facts of teen’s suicide is increasing. As of the figures of April 2016, it was counted 200 cases of teenagers committing suicide in Kazakhstan. The most susceptible age group is a 15-19 years old teenagers that accounts 60% of the whole suicides in Kazakhstan.
Despite these astonishing facts, today many citizens of Kazakhstan feel indifferent to suicide (Zhanabayev, n.d.). They tend to believe that the only cause that made them commit suicide is mental illness. However, it is not only reason that leads to suicide in fact; there exist a number of reasons that trigger healthy children to do such a horrible act.
The website livestrong.com and healthyplace.com provide the top common factors that drive teenagers to commit suicide (Croft, 2016; Shaw, 2017):
The major disappointment resulted from failure in study, rejection from a boyfriend or girlfriend, family loss that teenagers are not able to cope with which can trigger suicide. As the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI) notes, these situations alone might not be responsible for suicide, but these are factors that contribute to adolescent extreme measures.
As the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry states, the common problems among teens that related to stress are worries, pressure, and confusion, which cause teen suicide. Moving to a new place, experiencing parental divorce, studying in a new school are a few unsettling cases that exacerbate uncertain feelings such as anxiety, suffering, or agitation.
Depression is one of the major causes that lead to juvenile suicide. According to Kids Health, the feelings of worthlessness and hopelessness can be caused by this mental disorder. “Depression can be particularly harmful for teens who experience violence at home or at school and feel isolated fromt their peers or lack a social network of friends” says Shaw (2017, para. 4)
Alcohol or drug abuse can lead to unexpected behavior, especially if the teenager is being harassed by other problems, such as family difficulties or a mental disorder. Substance abuse is considered to relieve teen
s from their problems, but it only exacerbated the situations.
As NAMI points out, genetic component associated to mental illness may be other suicidal tendencies in teens. Children whose family was involved in mental disorders have a high risk of suicide or suicide attempts. Being the witness of relative’s suicide, vulnerable teens may have thoughts of suicide. According to NAMI (Shaw, 2017), “Low levels of the brain chemical serotonin may be a cause of suicide. Serotonin controls impulsive actions. Low levels of the chemical may lead to impulsive behavior, including suicide.” (para. 6)
The above mentioned reasons as well as sad statistics about juvenile suicides should not be ignored any more since they may concern any of us. We as community should try to protect our children from these terrible situations and pain that they suffer from. Teenagers spend half of their time at school, so teachers and psychologists need to be vigilant and be ready to give hands to them. If teens see that there are people around who can help them, I think we are able to save one’s life.
Croft, H. (2016). Why do teens commit suicide? Causes of teens suicide. Retrieved from https://www.healthyplace.com/suicide/why-do-teens-commit-suicide-causes-of-teen-suicide/
Ivashenko, N. (2016). Kazakhstan zanimayet vtoroe mesto v mire po kolichestvu detskih suitsidov [Kazakhstan ranks the second in the world in the number of children’s suicides]. Retrieved from https://365info.kz/2016/08/kazahstan-zanimaet-vtoroe-mesto-v-mire-po-kolichestvu-detskih-suitsidov/
Shaw, J. (2017). Causes of teenage suicide. Retrieved from https://www.livestrong.com/article/130491-causes-teenage-suicide/
Zhanabayev, B. (n.d.). Kazakhstan: odno samoubistvo v chas [Kazakhstan: one suicide per hour]. Retrieved from http://www.yk.kz/news/show/5144?print
Conference is considered to be a platform where people are expected to meet and discuss a particular topic. However, it is not limited to that only; conference meetings possess multidimensional benefits such as exchanging and learning new experiences and practices, sharing ideas, creating networking between specialists, immense potential for students and, most of all, conference serves as inspiration and motivation for many people. However, such factors as general organization, the content and the quality of sessions can impact the successful arrangement of a conference. So I will explicate such drawbacks below from the example of the conference that I have recently attended, and suggest some tips for conference goers based on my experience.
First and foremost, the aspects of a successful conference are the quality of sessions and the delivery of content to audience. People choose certain sessions not to spend their time for nothing, they consciously select from various topics in order to learn something valuable, so they can share with colleagues or realize it in practice. Thus, presenters should keep in mind these things when they prepare their presentations. Regarding my impression about the speakers of the session, whose presentations I attended, overall, it was quite different than I had expected. All the three speakers were aged assistant professors from two local and one from Russian universities. I chose this session, since one topic seemed relevant to my thesis topic, however, they provided the information that I already know or can read from a book, and no citation was provided. As for the overall presentations, they were full of slides with lots of listing, wording without any outline, purpose and connection.
The organization should be evaluated in accordance with the time management, namely the time shown in the program should be strictly followed. So, I noticed poor time management in the conference that I visited where quests and presenters started to feel worried, uncomfortable and nervous from the beginning. Despite the fact that the start time was announced twice, it did not start on time which in turn influenced the period allocated for coffee break, consequently, the first break out session started late and the time was not left for questions to presenters.
To sum up, despite of some positive aspects that occurred in the conference towards organization, the quality of sessions, and facilities provided, shortcomings present as well; this can be overcome next year considering the recommendations, paying special attention to the quality of the research in the selection process. In addition, I would suggest choosing the sessions where international speakers present rather than locals; if no time left for questions to speakers, ask for their emails so you can contact them.
The importance of optimal age in acquiring foreign languages at school is discussed widely among researchers (Lambelet & Berthele, 2015). Children are considered to be more capable in learning languages than adults, particularly, when they learn the languages on its natural settings and it has a long-term effect. There is a period when the human brain is most sensitive to acquire input and accept a certain language which is called “critical period” (Yule, 2010) and this term is often connected with the age factor. One of the most popular examples to demonstrate critical age is the case of a 13 year old girl, Genie, who was isolated from social communication by her father ” (Yule, 2010). This case has long been interpreted that after a certain period, human being is not able to develop the language (Lambelet & Berthele , 2015). As a result, the theory has been criticized due its insufficient findings on emotional, physical, and cognitive factors that affect the language development. According to Lambelet and Berthele (2015) the critical period is only a possible factor which affects the age, but other factors related to age discrepancy in language learning should be analyzed as well. In addition, according to Singleton (2003) and other scholars, various investigations on children’s linguistic development do not provide evidence that language competence is impossible after a particular age. However, it was stated that language learning takes place comparably slower in older age, equal to that of children who acquire their mother tongue under convenient conditions (p.7). All these findings do not seem to provide enough evidence that human linguistic capacity is impossible after a certain period.
“Critical age” is discussed as the plausible impact in children’s acquiring languages, but due to the deficiency of research findings on other factors (emotional, physical, and cognitive factors) it cannot be considered as a good argument. Moreover, data above is less likely to provide reasons why human linguistic capacity cannot function appropriately after a particular age. So these findings suggest that human linguistic capacity is not limited to earlier ages, but can be developed throughout school time.
Lambelet, A. Berthele, R. (2015). Age and foreign language learning in school. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Singleton, D. (2003). Critical period or general age. In Garcia Mayo, M. & Lecumberri, M. (eds.), Age and the Aquisition of English as a Foreign language. Clevedon; Buffalo; Toronto; Sydney; Multilingual Matters, 3-22.
Yule, G. (2010). The Study of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
The recent changes in the language policy triggered hot discussions among stakeholders, particularly Kazakh elite, who were against the trilingual education, stating how much role the mother tongue plays in children’s education and that this policy will disrupt their national(heritage) identity. This issue induced me to search for research studies which touched upon the advantages of the mother tongue education in students’ learning, some of them which are listed below.
The education in mother tongue has been the target of the many researchers (Iyamu & Ogiegbaen, 2007). Mother tongue or mother language is defined as the first language of a child and the language that acquired at home from older members of the child’s family (UNESCO, 2003, p.15). In some cases the mother tongue may imply the home language, the language which is used at home by the members of the family in a regular basis (UNESCO, 2008). It can be called family or native language as well.
UNESCO has maintained mother tongue based education in primary schools (UNESCO, 1953), highlighting the importance of the first language from the beginning of their school life since 1953. Moreover, in 1953 UNICEF declared “We take it as axiomatic … that the best medium for teaching is the mother tongue of the child” (UNESCO, 1953, p.1). Other researchers also suggest the advantages of mother tongue in children’s learning. For example, Kosonen (2005) state that children enroll and succeed more in school if the medium of instruction is in their home language. Interacting in mother tongue enhances the cognitive abilities of children. This statement was concurred by the socio-linguist, Thabo Ditsele (2009), he says in the Daily Maverick “that teaching younger children in a language that is not their mother tongue appears to disrupt cognitive ability and interferes with the learning process”. Many linguists believe that mother tongue education also helps children to acquire L2 easier as two languages support mutually (Marnewick, 2015). The use of students’ mother tongue can build a bridge between parents and the school as well. Parents feel more at home and will probably come to class when staff are open and can better help with homework when it is in their native language (De Jong, 2011, p. 34).
What is your opinion about this topic? What are the advantages of monolingual or bilingual education in primary school can you give from your experience or from readings?
De Jong (2011). Foundations for multilingualism in education: From Principles to
Practice. Philadelphia, Caslon Publishing
Iyamu, O. Ogiegbaen, S. (2007). Parents and Teachers’ Perceptions of Mother-tongue
Medium of Instruction Policy in Nigerian Primary Schools. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 20 (2), 97-108.
Kosonen, K. (2005). Education in local languages: Policy and practice in Southeast Asia. First
languages first: Community-based literacy programmes for minority language contexts in Asia. Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok.
Marnewick, A. (2015 March 17). The Debate about mother tongue education: What you
should know. Worksheetcloud. Retrieved from http://www.worksheetcloud.com/the-debate-about-mother-tongue-education-what-you-should-know/
Thabo, D (2009, September 20). Suburban Schools don’t care about African tongues. Sunday
Times, p. 36.
UNESCO (1953). The use of the vernacular languages in education. Monographs on
Foundations of Education, No. 8. Paris: UNESCO.
UNESCO (2003). Education in a multilingual world. UNESCO Education Position Paper. Paris:
UNESCO (2008). Mother Tongue Matters: Local Language as a Key to Effective
Learning. Paris: UNESCO.
Linguist, a psychologist and educator Chris Lonsdale in his TED speech persuades the audience that it is possible to acquire any language in 6 months. His talk would not be as engaging and straightforward if he did not use experiences and examples from his personal life connecting with the well-known inventions in the human development. He points out that many barriers which hinder us in learning new language are due to limits that take place in our lives as social dislocation, wars and all sorts of things going on.
The thought provoking question at the beginning of his speech was a kind of technique to catch the audience attention followed by his personal question “How to speed up the learning?” made them even get involved in the topic. In order to assure that normal adults can learn a new language quickly, easily and effectively, he employs his own experience of learning the Chinese language, which is considered to be stereotypically one of the difficult languages in the world. So this example enabled his speech to obtain more convincing, promising and exciting tone. He also indicated how it is important to observe people who are able to do it and situation where it is working and then determine the principles and utilize them. To support his claim he includes the examples from history of human progress, which are common and diverse. It was even impressive when he showed the drawing that he learnt in five days. That urged the audience that they also can repeat his achievement if they are focused on something and for that they do not need talent and immersion per se. The principles and actions he stated are systematically connected and concise which make them easy to be remembered.
He impressed me with his strong persuasive presentation and topic which is relevant and popular nowadays since the world is becoming multilingual. And more and more people strive to be plurilingual due to its benefits. More importantly, this video might be valuable for teachers who are willing to learn English, but were afraid to make a first step. The principles and actions suggested by Chris Lonsdale seem truly feasible and effective as they emanated from his personal experience, observation and research.
Recently the president Nursultan Nazarbayev organized a meeting with local and international mass media journalists. In the interview, the president spoke about one of the burning topic in our society– the language issue. In particular, he pointed out terms translated into Kazakh in an irrelevant quantity which have already merged into Kazakh. The president stated “Instead of enhancing Kazakh by international terms, the linguistic committee created a number of words which are not used by people, e.g. ‘procent’ is translated as ‘paiyz (procent) in Kazakh, but I do not use this word in my speech’”.
Language is the soul of the nation and spiritual identity. After gaining the independence, the Kazakh language obtained the status of state language. At that period, other ethnicities started paying attention to our mother tongue, saying “Kazakh became an individual country, the language received state language, if we do not learn Kazakh, we will not survive”. However, we could not continue this process properly. By trying to translate new words into Kazakh we made the language so complicated, that even Kazakh folks are not able to understand themselves. It is surprising to hear from graduates of Kazakh mainstream schools saying “I prefer to read in Russian to Kazakh” or “It is easier to read in Russian”. It is not difficult to notice that one of the main reasons of why we came to this adverse circumstance is the fact that huge amount of terms which are used by the whole world translated into Kazakh. Compare the following words in six different languages:
In fact, words in all these languages are written and pronounced almost the same, except Kazakh. In this respect my opinion corresponds to the president’s that we should not translate all the single word into Kazakh. I assume there are two advantages of using international terminologies unchanged. First, the original meaning of a word will be preserved, i.e. the meaning of items or actions will be conveyed accurately. The equivalent of any word can be found in any language, but it cannot accomplish in accordance to modern time necessity. For example, expertise, inauguration, document, administration -these words do not replace precise meaning of the words, thus are not used in everyday life. Secondly, terminology has enormous international power to unite world population. As our president said if 1800 words enter our language without changes, then isn’t it wealth? (Is Kazakh tongue-tied to articulate the international words?) These terminologies can also enable us to learn English, one of the most important goals in present days. Thousands of words have merged into the Russian language, but we do not see they lose something because of that.
The problem here is that we do not only make Kazakh language difficult to learn for other ethnicities, but also for ourselves. If Kazakhs do not read and understand their own language, who on Earth will learn and maintain it?
Learning the vocabulary and terms is the difficult task for any person. A big amount of new lexis is not kept in one’s head, thus, it is important words to be practiced and recalled. Obviously, limitless of exercises and ways exist in learning new vocabulary, e.g. by repeating the word for several times, hanging stickers with words on the walls, writing a word in one language on one side and another language on the another side, switching the language in a smartphone or a computer. A widespread strategy to divide a notebook into three columns is not effective because of the high possibility to lose or tear the notebook and less possibility and time is available to rewrite it. Therefore, I would like to suggest a new approach and website to learn vocabulary – Quizlet.
Quizlet is a free online service where you can create flashcards and teaching games and practice the vocabulary. The author of this online tool,15 years old American student Andrew Sutherland, invented it when they were asked to learn 111 names of animals in French. In order to make his life easier, the teenager created the mega project which is complement by 3 million users each day and in 100 languages. The idea of this service is not complex, all you need is to register in Quizlet.com, and add a translation or a definition of a word in the form of cards.
Quizlet offers to learn words though games by creating a list of vocabulary which is called ‘sets’. The words provided with translations might be presented as a list of definitions, images or photos with explanation. The sets created by other individuals might be changed or added into the list of your page. Making the list of words in English is not time-consuming as terms are already ready for use; you need to type the words in other languages though. Then, you may start the exercise. You can select the necessary set and learn it as it is, but it may bore a learner and is not always effective. Instead, the designers of the website propose several sorts of games for decreasing the time spend for learning and encouraging the word learning process. After practicing vocabulary, a test might be completed in order to know result. Four types of tasks are available (“multiple choice test”, “matching”, “write a word”, “true or false”), it is particularly effective when a teacher checks their learning. After having learnt each set, the statistics is constructed to trace the progress of learning. You may create a class, trace their result as well as see the record made by your students in games, which extremely advantageous in awakening students’ interest.
To sum up, this service offers a diverse range of functions: it is free and accessible, provides engaging exercises and games, enables to trace students’ progess as well as to see the record made by students. Most importantly, it is simple and flexible tool in use which allows to learn new words easily and willingly.
Two weeks ago we were asked to spend a couple of hours in one of Astana schools. The bus was already arranged at 8 in the morning to get us to school at 9 a.m. In order to be on time, I had to wake up at 7 o’clock. But you cannot imagine what torment I went through before getting up and was grateful for this program where classes start at 10 a.m. So while sitting in the bus and looking at my sleepy group mates, I was pity about children who had to come to school at 8 o’clock or even earlier every day. What about their parents? Definitely, mothers suffer most of all in this routine; they need to wake up the earliest, cook, dress up their children and themselves simultaneously. It is even harder, if parents are teachers…
All right, this blog is not about difficult time of teachers or teacher-parents, it is about the efficient morning time that schools should begin. So, in this blog I will attempt to find out the adequate time that classes should start referring to the recent studies.
The school start time varies around the world, ranging from 8 am to 9 am. For instance, in the UK the secondary schools start between 8.30-9.00, in Singapore at around 7.20-9.00, in the USA – 8.00-8.30, China – , South Korea – 8.30. In public schools in Kazakhstan classes start at 8 a.m. and in private and/or independent at 8.30 a.m. But are all abovementioned periods appropriate for all ages of students? They are not, according to researchers.
“Everybody learns better when they’re awake” says Mary Carskadon, who led the study on the relationship between early school time and poor performance and test scores in 1998 (Puckett, 2016). The federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends policymakers starting middle and high schools later in the morning, so teenagers obtain ample of sleep to succeed both academically and physically. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) urged to change schools to a later start times as children are required to get 8.5 to 9.5 hours of nightly sleep. According to pediatricians’ group and CDC, the lack of sleep leads to serious consequences such as depression, higher rates of obesity, car accidents and poorer quality of life (Richmond, 2015).
The recent studies conducted in eight high schools Colorado, Wyoming and Minnesota with the participation of 9,000 students where school time was shifted later than 8.30, revealed staggering result. School attendance rates, grades and test scores in English, Math, and social sciences elevated highly. Moreover, research depicted a decline in substance abuse, depression, lateness and motor-vehicle crashes among adolescents (Walker, 2015).
As majority of scientists urge policy makers to start classes later than 8.30 a.m., the Harvard and Oxford experts suggest 10 a.m. as the most relevant time, because it corresponds to the “biological wake-up time” of teenagers. So they recommend schools to start classes in accordance with “biological wake-up time” of students as in the following (Walker, 2015):
“The synchronization of education to adolescent biology enables immediate advances in educational attainment and can be achieved with a relatively simple step that does not require new teaching methods, new testing or large additional expenditure…Good policies should be based on good evidence, and the data show that children are currently placed at an enormous disadvantage by being forced to keep to inappropriate education times” (Walker, 2015).
Food for thought for my group mates, the future policy makers.
Puckett, L. (2016, March 29). Science Says Your School Should Probably Start Classes Later in the Morning. Teenvogue. Retrieved from http://www.teenvogue.com/story/school-sleep-deprivation-dangerous-for-teens
Richmond, E. (2015, August 17). Why School Should Start Later in the Morning. The Atlantic. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2015/08/why-school-should-start-later/401489/
Walker, T. (2015, September 20).Despite Proven Benefits, Starting School Later Remains a ‘Tough Sell’.Neatoday. Retrieved from http://neatoday.org/2015/09/20/despite-proven-benefits-starting-school-later-is-still-a-tough-sell/
[Online image]. Retrieved September 20 2015 from http://neatoday.org/2015/09/20/despite-proven-benefits-starting-school-later-is-still-a-tough-sell/
I am certain majority of us, MA1 students experienced disappointment when we first entered our room in the dormitory. We had to encounter the fact that we would share a room for a single with somebody. No result followed up in sending letters and going to some people who are in charge of resolving this issue for number of times (I wish they could be as responsible as our security). In this blog I am not going to blame or complain about those unfavorable memories, because there is no meaning to do so. Rather I would like to highlight some significant benefits of living alone which may impact one’s performance overall (the idea appeared in the first semester though).
First of all, living by yourself increases productivity. Living solo means you are responsible for your timetable; you know when to wake up, to study, to sleep, and to do housework. When you are certain that no one will distract you in accomplishing your plan, there is more opportunity to adhere the tasks you put in front of you. The public relations professional Allie Artur in Philadelphia, claims productivity is an asset what she would return most about living alone. She says she is easily distracted when she lives with someone and she is more productive when she is alone. My opinion concurs with her, it is hard to concentrate on your study when your roommate is talking on the phone, singing, dancing or doing other things (Zawacki, 2015).
Another point is that recent research shows our loaded brains require more downtime. “Downtime replenishes the brain’s stores of attention and motivation, encourages productivity and creativity, and is essential to both achieve our highest levels of performance and simply form stable memories in everyday life,” wrote Ferris Jabr in Scientific American (Schocker, 2012).
Finally, living yourself decreases stress and responsibility. Many would agree how it is important not to worry about someone’s needs when they return their room at the end of the day. No one will have made a mess (except you), thrown out papers around a room, or put their items on your place.
In conclusion, the advantages discoursed above were common among people who had both experiences: living with roommate or without. Benefits of sharing a room might exist as well, but I tend to believe it depends on an individual. What is your opinion? Are there any other positive sides in living solo or you are the person who does not care about it?
Schocker, L. (2012, May 7). How Living Alone Can Be Good For You. The Huffington post. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/laura-schocker/why-i-love-living-alone_b_1324539.html
Zawacki, K. (2015, February 9). Science Has Great News for People Who Live Alone. Connections.Mic. Retrieved from https://mic.com/articles/110046/why-living-alone-is-truly-awesome-according-to-science#.3fX3r17Bs
[Online image]. Retrieved October, 23 2015 from http://www.sheknows.com/home-and-gardening/articles/1094345/things-no-one-told-you-about-living-alone