Globalization and internationalization are distinctive features of this new era; countries are becoming multiethnic as more and more immigrants have settled down for various reasons. Some countries have dealt with this successfully while some have problems such as inter-ethnic conflicts. The pluralist society aims at promoting the social cohesion as well as ameliorating ethnic tensions; it emphasizes on perceiving diversities among people as assets. “Respect for diversity transcends tolerance to embrace difference as an engine to commonwealth.” (Boutilier, 2012, p.1) However, the strong resolution to develop the pluralism, since the complexity of the society structure and the principle of the development of human society, is not enough. This should be followed by a series of choice to advance and construct the society, where the interest of every ethnic group have been taken into consideration and they can share as well as access to the national economic and social opportunities.
Boutilier (2012, p. 3) points out that Canada’s success of constructing the pluralist society has been the process of making series of choice and “is not the fixed destination.” This means that the creation of the society where the individual differences and identities are accepted as well as respected has been the long-term process, starting with the declaration of the resolution to the diversity and followed with different decisions to make to ensure the nation stick to the first announcement. For instance, after the adoption of the Quebec Act in 1774 by British Parliament to ensure French people to attain their language and their religious belief; there have been a series of events to foster the continuous advancement of the pluralism: “recognition of bilingual Parliament and institution of federalism, official bilingualism, official multiculturalism, gender equality, aboriginal self-governance and asymmetrical federalism” (Boutilier, 2012, p.4).
In the Kazakhstani context, after the independence, there had been a period of time that Kazakh language was admitted as the sole national language which caused pressure for multiethnic population, and this was amended by the government later by recognizing Russian also as one of official languages as well as defining Kazakhstan as multicultural nation. Until now, Kazakhstan has made a series of choice to ensure its multicultural identity by supporting multiethnic languages and cultures; these have laid the basic foundation as social cohesion for the country development.
To sum up, the pluralist society is a long-way path, and also a continuous and progressive development which requires the making a series of choice as well as adamant resolution.
Global Center for Pluralism. (January, 2012). Defining pluralism. Pluralism Papers, No. 1, 1-14.