Current reforms in language policy are focused on the need of trilingual education. The Kazakhstani trilingual policy was reflected in the Address of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan N. Nazarbayev “New Kazakhstan in a new world” (Nazarbayev, 2007). Moreover, the problem of trilingual policy is mentioned in the policy documents of the State program of education development in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020, the State program of languages development and functioning for 2011-2020, the Roadmap of trilingual education for 2015-2020, the law “On languages of the Republic of Kazakhstan”. The educational issues on trilingual policy deserve to be researched due to a number of reasons.
Firstly, the top-down approach should be changed into the bottom-up approach. The policy-makers do not think about the differences between the regional educational institutions in terms of qualified, well-trained teachers who are able to speak equally in three languages (NUGSE, 2014). There is deficiency in teachers who are able to conduct classes in line with the trilingual policy. Moreover, there is a lack of training courses for teachers. This issue is reflected in the Roadmap of trilingual education in Kazakhstan (MES, 2015). The educational institutions cannot train teachers who will be able to teach in three or two languages. This issue is raised in the State program of education development in the Republic of Kazakhstan for 2011-2020 (MES, 2010).
Secondly, lack of teaching materials in English, Kazakh languages. Moreover, the quality of textbooks should be improved and reviewed by the entire stakeholder in education (Bridges, 2014). The other side of the problem is that some of the educational institutions cannot afford buying good quality materials without financial support from the government.
Thirdly, some stakeholders do not want to implement the trilingual education programs. The administration of some educational institutions does not want to change their educational policy as it makes them change a curriculum, hire new staff, spend money. Some parents and students still are not willing to study in several languages. Finally, the majority of regional institutions are under-equipped (equipment, technology) to support the trilingual education programs.
To conclude, various factors which influence the implementation of this reform within the Kazakhstani education context should be taken into consideration. This is significant because many stakeholders have a different approach in the implementation of this policy reform in Kazakhstan.
Bridges, D. (2014). (Ed.) Education reform and internationalization. The case of school reform in Kazakhstan. Cambridge Education Research Series.
MES (Ministry for Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan) (2010), State Programme of Education Development for 2011-2020, Decree of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, No. 1118 from December 7, 2010, Astana. Retrieved from www.akorda.kz/upload/SPED.doc
MES. (Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan) (2014). National report on current state and development of education system of Kazakhstan. Retrieved from http://www.edu.gov.kz
Nazarbayev, N.A. (2007). New Kazakhstan in a new world: Address by the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan to the People of Kazakhstan, Astana. Retrieved from http://www.edu.gov.kz
NUGSE (Nazarbayev University Graduate School of Education). (2014). Development of strategic directions for education reforms in Kazakhstan for 2015-2020: Diagnostic report. Astana: Indigo Print. Retrieved from http://www.edu.gov.kz