Theoretical approaches for writing in and outside the classroom

There are three main approaches to the practice of writing skills both in and outside the classroom, they are process, product and genre approaches. Many educators identify process approach as the process wheel. As White and Arndt point out that ‘…..writing is  re-writing…re-vision-seeing with new eyes- has a central role to play in the act of creating text’ (as cited in Harmer, 2011, p. 326).

The process approach helps  a learner to analyze each stage step by step  in academic writing and also  process itself fosters  learners’ thoughts. Moreover, it can be tended to time consuming approach. It can be presented with communicative-task based method.

Another approach to teaching writing is the so called genre approach. The genre approach can be regarded as social approach because ‘genre analysis attempts to show how  the structure of particular text-types are shaped by the purposes they serve in specific social and cultural context’(Thornbury, 2006, p. 260). Therefore, a text  is analyzed  in functional and  in linguistic aspects where a learner has  to differentiate in  style, language and layout.

The last approach in teaching writing is product (or model text) approach. Its focus on producing a text that reproduces the model (Thornbury, 2006, p. 249), particularly this paper’s basic strategies of teaching  argument   in academic writing will be carried out by product approach. There are four stages which facilitate a learner to be more competent in certain aspects of a particular context. Additionally, a teacher can apply Present, Practice and Produce teaching structure in order to familiarize with contributing arguments and the overall argument or with the rest components of critical argument in writing which help a learner to write a good argument. The second and third stages’ (controlled and guided) purposes are to give a learner guided practice with increasing freedom to assist them practice. As for critical argument learners would probably be given a gap fill text where they would be asked to create the overall argument. The last stage is called free writing – in this stage every learner can produce his own product by imitating the sample text.

Thus, all approaches help a learner to revise or to be introduced with any model texts and facilitate a learner’s motivation in writing.

References:

Harmer, J. (2007).  The Practice of English Language Teaching. 4th ed. Essex, England: Pearson

Thornbury, S. (2006). An A-Z of ELT: A Dictionary of terms and Concepts Used in English  Language teaching. Oxford, UK: Macmillan Education.

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