Do the specialties provided by vocational education and training (VET) for people with special needs correspond to the requirements of the labor market (LM)

Young adults are considered to be independent, when they can take care of themselves and start living separate from their parents. This usually takes place when they go to large cities to study or in search of a job, insofar as one of the constituents of the quality life is being employed. Adolescents go into adult life in pursuit of self realization through trying new things, new experiences and new opportunities. Is it the same for the young adults with disabilities? If your answer to this question is positive, then you are far from the truth. Unfortunately, not everyone can take this opportunity.

When a person has a limited ability and a limited opportunity it is twice harder to function independently. In most developed countries, the second limitation is made less restrictive, by fitting the jobs to the people with special needs – VET works in cooperation with LM. The situation, however, may be completely opposite in different countries.

In Kazakhstan employers are most likely to hire a person with higher qualifications, or can only offer people with special needs the low-paying and low-skilled jobs, such as a janitor, cleaner, watchman etc (Kazizova & Pritvorova, 2013). Moreover, consistent findings show that young adults with special needs scarcely participate in tertiary educational institutions (Polidano & Mavromaras, 2010). However, in case of having VET qualifications the graduates suffer from discrepancy of their specialties with LM demands (Polidano & Mavromaras, 2010). Due to the political, social and economical changes LM requirements are constantly altering too. This explains why graduates cannot find jobs according to the specialties they are prepared for. To be more specific, there are VET colleges, which offer such specialties as a tailor, designer, hairdresser and massage therapist for young adults with vision impairment, hearing loss and deaf-mute only. People with other mental or physical disabilities have little option but accept living in a society where they have possibilities neither for education nor for later occupation.

One more reason for reluctance of LM to employ VET graduates with disabilities is the lack of accurate information on productivity of such individuals in suffice. Ideally, practical methods, including probation periods, training before and after hiring, adapting the job content should be organized to address this problem. Nevertheless, these activities cost much for employers and demand serious commitment from both employers and employees (Polidano & Mavromaras, 2010).

Therefore, it would be useful for VET to work in collaboration with LM in order to know what professions are in demand and affordable for students with special needs. In the modern society, such professions as a salesperson, businessman, IT specialist, self-employed, accountant, translator, teacher or writer should be made suitable for people with disabilities. As far as, providing people with special needs with quality life is a final goal of social inclusion.

References:

Polidano, C., & Mavromaras, K. (2010). The Role of Vocational Education and Training in the Labour Market Outcomes of People with Disabilities. A National Vocational Education and Training Research and Evaluation Program Report. National Centre for Vocational Education Research Ltd. PO Box 8288, Stational Arcade, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia.

Pritvorova, T., & Gazizova, G. (2013). Vocational rehabilitation of    the disabled in Kazakhstan: Problems and theirs Solutions. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research, 15(4), 546-55.

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